Novel Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Linezolid in Critically Ill Patients and Evaluation of the Adequacy of the Current Dosing Recommendation

Pharmaceutics. 2020 Jan 9;12(1):54. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12010054.


Antimicrobial treatment in critically ill patients remains challenging. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for linezolid in critically ill patients and to evaluate the adequacy of current dosing recommendation (600 mg/12 h). Forty inpatients were included, 23 of whom were subjected to continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT). Blood and effluent samples were drawn after linezolid administration at defined time points, and linezolid levels were measured. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed, using NONMEM 7.3. The percentage of patients that achieved the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets was calculated (AUC24/MIC > 80 and 100% T>MIC). A two-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics of linezolid. Elimination was conditioned by the creatinine clearance and by the extra-corporeal clearance if the patient was subjected to CRRT. For most patients, the standard dose of linezolid did not cover infections caused by pathogens with MIC ≥ 2 mg/L. Continuous infusion may be an alternative, especially when renal function is preserved.

Keywords: continuous infusion; continuous renal replacement therapies; critically ill; linezolid; pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics; population pharmacokinetics.