Hyperkalemia in chronic kidney disease

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2020 Jan 13;66Suppl 1(Suppl 1):s31-s36. doi: 10.1590/1806-9282.66.S1.31.

Abstract

Hyperkalemia is a frequent finding in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This increase in serum potassium levels is associated with decreased renal ion excretion, as well as the use of medications to reduce the progression of CKD or to control associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus and heart failure. Hyperkalemia increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia episodes and sudden death. Thus, the control of potassium elevation is essential for reducing the mortality rate in this population. Initially, the management of hyperkalemia includes orientation of low potassium diets and monitoring of patients' adherence to this procedure. It is also important to know the medications in use and the presence of comorbidities to guide dose reduction or even temporary withdrawal of any of the potassium retention-related drugs. And finally, the use of potassium binders is indicated in both acute episodes and chronic hyperkalemia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Comorbidity
  • Humans
  • Hyperkalemia / blood
  • Hyperkalemia / drug therapy
  • Hyperkalemia / etiology*
  • Polystyrenes / therapeutic use
  • Potassium / adverse effects*
  • Potassium / blood
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / blood
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications*
  • Silicates / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Polystyrenes
  • Silicates
  • polystyrene sulfonic acid
  • sodium zirconium cyclosilicate
  • Potassium