PET/CT and PET/MRI in ophthalmic oncology (Review)

Int J Oncol. 2020 Feb;56(2):417-429. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2020.4955. Epub 2020 Jan 3.


Orbital and ocular anatomy is quite complex, consisting of several tissues, which can give rise to both benign and malignant tumors, while several primary neoplasms can metastasize to the orbital and ocular space. Early detection, accurate staging and re‑staging, efficient monitoring of treatment response, non‑invasive differentiation between benign and malignant lesions, and accurate planning of external radiation treatment, are of utmost importance for the optimal and individualized management of ophthalmic oncology patients. Addressing these challenges requires the employment of several diagnostic imaging techniques, such as high‑definition digital fundus photography, ultrasound imaging, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography (OCT)‑angiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In recent years, technological advances have enabled the development of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and PET/MRI systems, setting new standards in cancer diagnosis and treatment. The capability of simultaneously targeting several cancer‑related biochemical procedures using positron emitting‑radiopharmaceuticals, while morphologically characterizing lesions by CT or MRI, together with the intrinsic quantitative capabilities of PET‑imaging, provide incremental diagnostic information, enabling accurate, highly efficient and personalized treatment strategies. Aim of the current review is to discuss the current applications of hybrid PET/CT and PET/MRI imaging in the management of patients presenting with the most commonly encountered orbital and ocular tumors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Eye Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging*
  • Eye Neoplasms / pathology
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Multimodal Imaging*
  • Orbital Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed


  • Radiopharmaceuticals