Background: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a form of non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. Insufficient data exist in regard to gastrointestinal history and outcome, particularly comorbidity, family history, food aversion, and poor body weight gain.
Objective: We sought to identify the gastrointestinal outcomes and related risk factors in FPIES.
Methods: We analyzed the clinical features and gastrointestinal outcomes of patients with FPIES retrospectively at 4 hospitals in Boston.
Results: Two hundred three patients with FPIES were identified, including 180 only with acute FPIES, 8 with chronic FPIES, and 15 with both. Oat (34.5%), rice (29.6%), and cow's milk (19.2%) were the most common food triggers. The prevalence rates of personal history with allergic proctocolitis (23.2%) and family history with inflammatory bowel diseases (9.4%) and celiac disease (7.3%) were higher than those in the general population. Compared with patients with FPIES with 1 or 2 food triggers, the risk of developing food aversion increased in cases triggered by 3 or more foods (adjusted odds ratio, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.38-6.82; P = .006). The risk of poor body weight gain increased in FPIES triggered by cow's milk (adjusted odds ratio, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.21-9.63; P = .02) and banana (adjusted odds ratio, 7.63; 95% CI, 2.10-27.80; P = .002).
Conclusions: Gastrointestinal comorbidities and family history were common in patients with FPIES. Patients with FPIES with 3 or more triggers were at risk of food aversion. Patients with FPIES with cow's milk and banana as triggers were at risk of poor body weight gain.
Keywords: Food protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome; food aversion; poor body weight gain.
Copyright © 2020 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.