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Review
. 2020 Jan 11;10(1):32.
doi: 10.3390/metabo10010032.

Adipokines and Adipose Tissue-Related Metabolites, Nuts and Cardiovascular Disease

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Free PMC article
Review

Adipokines and Adipose Tissue-Related Metabolites, Nuts and Cardiovascular Disease

Camila Weschenfelder et al. Metabolites. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Adipose tissue is a complex structure responsible for fat storage and releasing polypeptides (adipokines) and metabolites, with systemic actions including body weight balance, appetite regulation, glucose homeostasis, and blood pressure control. Signals sent from different tissues are generated and integrated in adipose tissue; thus, there is a close connection between this endocrine organ and different organs and systems such as the gut and the cardiovascular system. It is known that functional foods, especially different nuts, may be related to a net of molecular mechanisms contributing to cardiometabolic health. Despite being energy-dense foods, nut consumption has been associated with no weight gain, weight loss, and lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. Several studies have reported beneficial effects after nut consumption on glucose control, appetite suppression, metabolites related to adipose tissue and gut microbiota, and on adipokines due to their fatty acid profile, vegetable proteins, l-arginine, dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, and phytosterols. The aim of this review is to briefly describe possible mechanisms implicated in weight homeostasis related to different nuts, as well as studies that have evaluated the effects of nut consumption on adipokines and metabolites related to adipose tissue and gut microbiota in animal models, healthy individuals, and primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention.

Keywords: acetate; adipokines; adipose tissue; cardiovascular diseases; nuts; propionate; uric acid.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Effects of adipose tissue-secreted metabolites (left) and microbiota-formed metabolites (right) on rat, pig, and human metabolisms on adipose tissue and cardiovascular system parameters. BMI: body mass index; CVD: cardiovascular diseases; GLP-1: glucagon-like peptide-1; IL-8: interleukin 8; PAME: palmitic acid methyl ester; PYY: peptide YY; TMAO: trimethylamine N-oxide; WAT: white adipose tissue. ↑: increase; ↓: decrease.

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