Islet transplantation is an efficacious therapy for type 1 diabetes; however, islets from multiple donor pancreata are required, and a gradual attrition in transplant function is seen. Here, we manufactured human umbilical cord perivascular mesenchymal stromal cells (HUCPVCs) to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards. HUCPVCs showed a stable phenotype while undergoing rapid ex vivo expansion at passage 2 (p2) to passage 4 (p4) and produced proregenerative factors, strongly suppressing T cell responses in the resting state and in response to inflammation. Transplanting an islet equivalent (IEQ):HUCPVC ratio of 1:30 under the kidney capsule in diabetic NSG mice demonstrated the fastest return to normoglycemia by 3 days after transplant: Superior glycemic control was seen at both early (2.7 weeks) and later stages (7, 12, and 16 weeks) versus ratios of 1:0, 1:10, and 1:50, respectively. Syngeneic islet transplantation in immunocompetent mice using the clinically relevant hepatic portal route with a marginal islet mass showed that mice transplanted with an IEQ:HUCPVC ratio of 1:150 had superior glycemic control versus ratios of 1:0, 1:90, and 1:210 up to 6 weeks after transplant. Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human islets (IEQ:HUCPVC ratio of 1:150) exhibited better glycemic control for 7 weeks after transplant versus islet transplant alone, and islets transplanted via the hepatic portal vein in an allogeneic mouse model using a curative islet mass demonstrated delayed rejection of islets when cotransplanted with HUCPVCs (IEQ:HUCPVC ratio of 1:150). The immunosuppressive and proregenerative properties of HUCPVCs demonstrated long-term positive effects on graft function in vivo, indicating that they may improve long-term human islet allotransplantation outcomes.
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