Aim: To compare the characteristics of children and adolescents with type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) registries.
Methods: Participants were 10 to < 21 years of age at diagnosis; there were 484 with type 1 diabetes and 1236 with type 2 diabetes.
Results: Children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes were more likely to be female, overweight/obese, and from low-income, minority ethnic families. Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes were more likely to present with diabetic ketoacidosis and have higher mean HbA1c levels at diagnosis. More than 70% in both cohorts achieved target HbA1c levels < 58 mmol/mol (< 7.5%) within 6 months, but fewer participants with type 1 than type 2 diabetes were able to maintain target HbA1c levels after 6 months consistently throughout 3 years post diagnosis. Of the 401 participants with type 2 diabetes with ≥ 24 months diabetes duration on enrolment in the registry, 47% required no insulin treatment. Median C-peptide levels were 1.43 mmol/l in the subset of participants with type 2 diabetes in whom it was measured, but only 0.06 mmol/l in the subset with type 1 diabetes.
Conclusions: Although families of children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes face greater socio-economic obstacles and risk factors for poor diabetes outcomes, the greater retention of residual endogenous insulin secretion likely contributes to the increased ability of children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes to maintain target HbA1c during the first 3 years of diabetes diagnosis.
© 2020 Diabetes UK.