Diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis among youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: Results from SEARCH (United States) and YDR (India) registries

Pediatr Diabetes. 2021 Feb;22(1):40-46. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12979. Epub 2020 Feb 17.


Background: There is significant global variation in the prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at diagnosis among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, data for youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are limited, even in developed countries. We compared the prevalence of DKA at diagnosis among individuals with T1D and T2D from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) and the Registry of Youth Onset Diabetes in India (YDR) registries.

Methods: We harmonized the SEARCH and YDR registries to the structure and terminology in the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership Common Data Model. Data used were from youth with T1D and T2D diagnosed before 20 years and newly diagnosed between 2006 and 2012 in YDR and 2009 and 2012 in SEARCH.

Results: There were 5366 US youth (4078 with T1D, 1288 with T2D) and 2335 Indian youth (2108 with T1D, 227 with T2D). More than one third of T1D youth enrolled in SEARCH had DKA at diagnosis which was significantly higher than in YDR (35.3% vs 28.7%, P < .0001). The burden of DKA in youth with T1D was significantly higher among younger age groups; this relationship was similar across registries (P = .4). The prevalence of DKA among T2D in SEARCH and YDR were 5.5% and 6.6% respectively (P = .4).

Conclusions: There is significant burden of DKA at diagnosis with T1D among youth from United States and India, especially among the younger age groups. The reasons for this high prevalence are largely unknown but are critical to developing interventions to prevent DKA at diagnosis.

Keywords: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth registry; YDR registry; diabetic ketoacidosis; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis*
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Registries
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult

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