The recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technology has revolutionized the genome engineering field. Since 2016, increasing number of studies regarding CRISPR therapeutics have entered clinical trials, most of which are focusing on the ex vivo genome editing. In this review, we highlight the ex vivo cell-based CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing for therapeutic applications. In these studies, CRISPR/Cas9 tools were used to edit cells in vitro and the successfully edited cells were considered as therapeutics, which can be introduced into patients to treat diseases. Considering a large number of previous reviews have been focused on the CRISPR/Cas9 delivery methods and materials, this review provides a different perspective, by mainly introducing the targeted conditions and design strategies for ex vivo CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutics. Brief descriptions of the history, functionality, and applications of CRISPR/Cas9 systems will be introduced first, followed by the design strategies and most significant results from previous research that used ex vivo CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing for the treatment of conditions or diseases. The last part of this review includes general information about the status of CRISPR/Cas9 therapeutics in clinical trials. We also discuss some of the challenges as well as the opportunities in this research area.
Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; Clinical trials; Ex vivo; Genetic disease; Genome editing.
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