Mortality, major causes of moribundity, and spontaneous tumors in CD-1 mice were studied in 891 males and 890 females, which were used as controls in 11 different 2-year chronic and oncogenicity studies during the past 5 years. Average mortality of males and females at 83 weeks of age was 32.6% and 28.6%, respectively, and at 109 weeks of age was 66.4% and 63.3%, respectively. Mortality was significantly lowered in males and females born after 1980 in accordance with an abruptly decreased occurrence of systemic amyloidosis in these animals. The major cause of death or moribundity included systemic arteritis, systemic amyloidosis, auricular thrombosis, glomerulosclerosis, lymphoma, and pulmonary adenocarcinoma in both sexes. Dysuria and hepatocellular carcinoma in males and mammary adenocarcinoma in females were also critical lesions. The major tumors occurring at more than 3% incidence were systemic lymphoma, adenoma/adenocarcinoma of the lung, adenoma/carcinoma of the liver and adenoma/adenocarcinoma of the Harderian gland for males, and systemic lymphoma, adenoma/adenocarcinoma of the lung, adenoma/carcinoma of the liver, leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma of the uterus, adenoma/adenocarcinoma of the pituitary (anterior), adenoma/adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland and adenoma/adenocarcinoma of the Harderian gland for females. Intralaboratory heterogeneities in the incidence were recorded as follows: systemic lymphoma in 1 of 11 control groups (1/11) and adenoma/adenocarcinoma in 1/11 for males, and systemic lymphoma in 3/11, adenoma/adenocarcinoma of the lung in 2/11, adenoma/adenocarcinoma of the liver in 1/11, and adenoma/adenocarcinoma in 1/11 for females.