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. 2020 Jan 14;20(2):457.
doi: 10.3390/s20020457.

Metamaterial Cell-Based Superstrate Towards Bandwidth and Gain Enhancement of Quad-Band CPW-Fed Antenna for Wireless Applications

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Free PMC article

Metamaterial Cell-Based Superstrate Towards Bandwidth and Gain Enhancement of Quad-Band CPW-Fed Antenna for Wireless Applications

Samir Salem Al-Bawri et al. Sensors (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

A multiband coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed antenna loaded with metamaterial unit cell for GSM900, WLAN, LTE-A, and 5G Wi-Fi applications is presented in this paper. The proposed metamaterial structure is a combination of various symmetric split-ring resonators (SSRR) and its characteristics were investigated for two major axes directions at (x and y-axis) wave propagation through the material. For x-axis wave propagation, it indicates a wide range of negative refractive index in the frequency span of 2-8.5 GHz. For y-axis wave propagation, it shows more than 2 GHz bandwidth of near-zero refractive index (NZRI) property. Two categories of the proposed metamaterial plane were applied to enhance the bandwidth and gain. The measured reflection coefficient (S11) demonstrated significant bandwidths increase at the upper bands by 4.92-6.49 GHz and 3.251-4.324 GHz, considered as a rise of 71.4% and 168%, respectively, against the proposed antenna without using metamaterial. Besides being high bandwidth achieving, the proposed antenna radiates bi-directionally with 95% as the maximum radiation efficiency. Moreover, the maximum measured gain reaches 6.74 dBi by a 92.57% improvement compared with the antenna without using metamaterial. The simulation and measurement results of the proposed antenna show good agreement.

Keywords: DNG metamaterial; coplanar waveguide (CPW) antenna; multiband; near-zero refractive index (NZRI); wideband.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Metamaterial unit cell: (a) unit cell structure with g = 0.5 mm, r1 = 2.9 mm, r2 = 1.9 mm, r3 = 0.9 mm; (b) simulation set-up in the x-axis; (c) simulation set-up in the y-axis.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Surface current distribution at (a) 2.4; (b) 3.5; (c) 5.5 and (d) 10 GHz.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Simulated metamaterial reflection and transmission coefficients: (a) x-axis, (b) y-axis.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Metamaterial simulated refractive index of 1 × 1 unit cell: (a) x-axis; (b) y-axis.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Metamaterial simulated results at x-axis: (a) permittivity; (b) permeability; and (c) impedance.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Metamaterial simulated result at y-axis: (a) permittivity; (b) permeability and (c) impedance.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Metamaterial simulated refractive index results of the 1 × 1, 1 × 2 and 2 × 2 array structures: (a) x- axis; (b) y- axis.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Geometry of the proposed antenna: (a) front view, (b) 3D view, (c) back view, (d) suspended separator metamaterial (MTM) layer.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Simulated surface current intensity at: (a) 900; (b) 2.4; (c) 3.5; and (d) 5.5 GHz.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Simulated reflection coefficient for different slot length at: (a) SL = 15 mm, SL = 20 mm; (b) SL = 25 mm, and SL = 30 mm.
Figure 11
Figure 11
The fabricated prototype of the proposed coplanar waveguide (CPW) antenna: (a) 3D view; (b) front view; (c) back view with MTM; and (d) MTM super substrate structure.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Simulated reflection coefficient (S11) with and without MTM.
Figure 13
Figure 13
Simulated and measured reflection coefficient (S11) with MTM.
Figure 14
Figure 14
A measured and simulated gain of proposed CPW antenna with and without MTM.
Figure 15
Figure 15
The proposed CPW antenna efficiency with and without MTM.
Figure 16
Figure 16
Simulated and measured electric field radiation patterns of the proposed CPW antenna at: the (a) XY-Plane; (b) YZ-Plane.

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