Sensorimotor tasks that humans perform are often affected by different sources of uncertainty. Nevertheless, the central nervous system (CNS) can gracefully coordinate our movements. Most learning frameworks rely on the internal model principle, which requires a precise internal representation in the CNS to predict the outcomes of our motor commands. However, learning a perfect internal model in a complex environment over a short period of time is a nontrivial problem. Indeed, achieving proficient motor skills may require years of training for some difficult tasks. Internal models alone may not be adequate to explain the motor adaptation behavior during the early phase of learning. Recent studies investigating the active regulation of motor variability, the presence of suboptimal inference, and model-free learning have challenged some of the traditional viewpoints on the sensorimotor learning mechanism. As a result, it may be necessary to develop a computational framework that can account for these new phenomena. Here, we develop a novel theory of motor learning, based on model-free adaptive optimal control, which can bypass some of the difficulties in existing theories. This new theory is based on our recently developed adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and robust ADP (RADP) methods and is especially useful for accounting for motor learning behavior when an internal model is inaccurate or unavailable. Our preliminary computational results are in line with experimental observations reported in the literature and can account for some phenomena that are inexplicable using existing models.