Substance use disorder treatment services for pregnant and postpartum women in residential and outpatient settings

J Subst Abuse Treat. 2020 Mar:110:9-17. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2019.12.005. Epub 2019 Dec 6.


The increasing prevalence of opioid use disorders among pregnant and postpartum women (PPW) has generated a need for greater availability of specialized programs offering evidence-based and comprehensive substance use disorder treatment services tailored to this population. In this study, we used data from the 2007 to 2018 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services to describe recent time trends and the geographic distribution of treatment facilities with specialized programs for PPW. We also compared differences in the availability of opioid agonist medication treatments (MT), key ancillary services, and health insurance acceptance between PPW Programs and Other Programs, overall and by residential and outpatient settings. We found that the prevalence of PPW Programs increased from 17% in 2007 to 23% in 2018, for a total of 3,429 PPW Programs and 11,230 Other Programs in 2018. The prevalence of PPW Programs was lowest in some states in the South and Midwest. Compared to Other Programs, PPW Programs were more likely to accept Medicaid (75% vs. 64%) and offer opioid agonist MTs methadone (24% vs. 6%), buprenorphine (44% vs. 30%), or both (18% vs. 4%). PPW Programs were also more likely to offer other key ancillary services such as childcare (16% vs. 3%), transportation (50% vs. 42%), and domestic violence assistance (51% vs. 35%). Compared to PPW Programs in outpatient settings, PPW Programs in residential settings were more likely to offer these key ancillary services but less likely to offer methadone or accept Medicaid. Our findings reflect considerable variation in the availability of PPW Programs over time and across states, as well as substantial gaps in key services offered in PPW Programs, let alone in Other Programs.

Keywords: Opioid use disorder; Outpatient; Pregnant women; Residential; Substance use disorder treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Buprenorphine*
  • Female
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Humans
  • Methadone / therapeutic use
  • Opioid-Related Disorders*
  • Outpatients
  • Postpartum Period
  • Pregnancy
  • Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
  • United States


  • Buprenorphine
  • Methadone