Purpose: Thanks to the introduction of more sensitive/specific imaging and minimally invasive treatment techniques, the oligometastatic state in prostate cancer (PCa) has attracted the interest of the uro-oncological community. We aim to identify and analyze trials across five registries to gain insights into the directions this field is moving.
Methods: A systematic review of trials on oligometastatic PCa registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, ANZCTR, ISRCTN, Netherlands and UMIN Clinical Trials Registries was performed using the following keywords: 'prostate cancer' and 'oligo'. Data were extracted from ongoing/completed trials, with an unreported primary endpoint in a peer-reviewed journal, as of May until August, 2018.
Results: We identified 41 trials on oligometastatic PCa. Twenty-four trials are conducted in North America and 14 in Europe. Up to 70% are phase I or II trials and < 10% (n = 4) are in phase III. Less than 50% (n = 17) are randomized controlled trials. Oligometastases are PET detected in 25 trials. Studies on synchronous oligometastatic (n = 12; 29%) or oligorecurrent (n = 14; 34%) PCa are equally represented, the remainder focus on mixed states (n = 15; 37%). The majority (n = 39; 95%) of trials investigate local treatment options (RP: 5; RT: 9; RP ± RT: 7; metastasis-directed therapy: 28) with (72%) or without (28%) systemic treatment. The remaining two are imaging studies. Progression-free (PFS; 17/41; 41%) or overall survival (OS; 3/41; 7%) is defined as primary endpoint in half of all trials, others are 'safety/toxicity' or 'PSA response'.
Conclusions: With 41 ongoing trials, there is great interest in oligometastatic PCa. Most trials address local ablative treatments both for prostate and/or metastases, typically by radiotherapy, and several attempts to determine the benefit of adding systemic therapy. The field will hopefully have definitive answers after completion of four ongoing phase III trials.
Keywords: Clinical trials; Neoplasm; Oligometastases; Oligorecurrence; PET-CT; Prostate cancer.