Intravenous iodinated contrast media are commonly used with CT to evaluate disease and to determine treatment response. The risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) developing in patients with reduced kidney function following exposure to intravenous iodinated contrast media has been overstated. This is due primarily to historic lack of control groups sufficient to separate contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI; ie, AKI caused by contrast media administration) from contrast-associated AKI (CA-AKI; ie, AKI coincident to contrast media administration). Although the true risk of CI-AKI remains uncertain for patients with severe kidney disease, prophylaxis with intravenous normal saline is indicated for patients who have AKI or an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 who are not undergoing maintenance dialysis. In individual high-risk circumstances, prophylaxis may be considered in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30-44 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the discretion of the ordering clinician. This article is a simultaneous joint publication in Radiology and Kidney Medicine. The articles are identical except for stylistic changes in keeping with each journal's style. Either version may be used in citing this article.
© 2020 RSNA and the National Kidney Foundation published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY NC-ND license.