To date, the effects of endurance exercise training on lymphocyte physiology at the kinome level are largely unknown. Therefore, the present study used a highly sensitive peptide-based kinase activity profiling approach to investigate if the basal activity of tyrosine (Tyr) and serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) kinases of human lymphocytes is affected by the aerobic endurance training status. Results revealed that the activity of various tyrosine kinases of the FGFR family and ZAP70 was increased, whereas the activity of multiple Ser/Thr kinases such as IKKα, CaMK4, PKAα, PKCα+δ (among others) was decreased in lymphocytes of endurance trained athletes (ET). Moreover, functional associations between several differentially regulated kinases in ET-derived lymphocytes were demonstrated by phylogenetic mapping and network analysis. Especially, Ser/Thr kinases of the AGC-kinase (protein kinase A, G, and C) family represent exercise-sensitive key components within the lymphocytes kinase network that may mediate the long-term effects of endurance training. Furthermore, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and Reactome pathway analysis indicate that Ras as well as intracellular signaling by second messengers were found to be enriched in the ET individuals. Overall, our data suggest that endurance exercise training improves the adaptive immune competence by modulating the activity of multiple protein kinases in human lymphocytes.