Anti-inflammatory activity of emu oil-based nanofibrous scaffold through downregulation of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α pro-inflammatory cytokines

Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2020 Jan 23;41(2). doi: 10.1515/hmbci-2019-0052.


Background Inflammation is one of the most important responses of the body against infection or disease, and it protects tissues from injury; however, it causes redness, swelling, pain, fever and loss of function. The aim of this present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of emu oil (Eu) formulated nanofibrous scaffold in HFFF2 fibroblast cells. Materials and methods Eu was formulated successfully in nanofibers through the electrospinning method. Besides, the morphological and structural properties of Eu nanofibres were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) was performed to evaluate the HFFF2 fibroblast cells' viability. Also, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory signaling pathway in treated HFFF2 cells with Eu nanofiber. Results Our study showed that the Eu nanofiber increased the viability of fibroblast HFFF2 cells (p < 0.05). Also, the expression of interleukin1 (IL1), IL6 and tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) pro-inflammatory cytokines genes were significantly decreased in treated HFFF2 cells with Eu nanofiber (p < 0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, Eu nanofiber scaffold potentially can reduce the inflammation process through downregulation of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokines.

Keywords: cell viability; emu oil; inflammation; nanofibrous scaffold.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects
  • Drug Implants
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin-1 / biosynthesis*
  • Interleukin-1 / genetics
  • Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis*
  • Interleukin-6 / genetics
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Nanofibers / chemistry*
  • Oils / administration & dosage
  • Oils / pharmacology*
  • Polyesters
  • Polyethylene Glycols
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • Tissue Scaffolds*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Drug Implants
  • IL6 protein, human
  • Interleukin-1
  • Interleukin-6
  • Oils
  • Polyesters
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • polycaprolactone
  • emu Oil
  • Polyethylene Glycols