Appetite-Related Responses to Overfeeding and Longitudinal Weight Change in Obesity-Prone and Obesity-Resistant Adults

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2020 Feb;28(2):259-267. doi: 10.1002/oby.22687.


Objective: Appetite responses to 3 days of overfeeding (OF) were examined as correlates of longitudinal weight change in adults classified as obesity prone (OP) or obesity resistant (OR).

Methods: OP (n = 22) and OR (n = 30) adults consumed a controlled eucaloric and OF diet (140% of energy needs) for 3 days, followed by 3 days of ad libitum feeding. Hunger and satiety were evaluated by visual analog scales. Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) levels were measured during a 24-hour inpatient visit on day 3. Body weight and composition were measured annually for 4.0 ± 1.3 years.

Results: Dietary restraint and disinhibition were greater in OP than OR (mean difference: 3.5 ± 1.2 and 3.3 ± 0.9, respectively; P < 0.01) participants, and disinhibition was associated with longitudinal weight change (n = 48; r = 0.35; P = 0.02). Compared with the eucaloric diet, energy intake fell significantly in OR participants following OF (P = 0.03) but not in OP (P = 0.33) participants. Twenty-four-hour PYY area under the curve values increased with OF in OR (P = 0.02) but not in OP (P = 0.17) participants. Furthermore, changes in PYY levels with OF correlated with measured energy intake (r = -0.36; P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Baseline disinhibition and PYY responses to OF differed between OP and OR adults. Dietary disinhibition was associated with 5-year longitudinal weight gain. Differences in appetite regulation may underlie differences in propensity for weight gain.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appetite / physiology*
  • Appetite Regulation / physiology*
  • Body Weight
  • Diet / methods*
  • Energy Intake / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Obesity / physiopathology*