Aim: Controlled sequential elevation of the head and thorax (CSE) during active compression-decompression (ACD) CPR with an impedance threshold device (ITD) augments cerebral (CerPP) and coronary (CorPP) perfusion pressures. The optimal CSE is unknown.
Methods: After 8 minutes of untreated VF, 40 kg anesthetized female pigs were positioned on a customized head and thorax elevation device (CED). After 2 min of automated ACD + ITD-16 CPR to 'prime the system', 12 pigs were randomized to CSE to the highest CED position over 4-min or 10-min. The primary outcome was CerPP after 7 minutes of CPR. Secondarily, 24-sec (without a priming step) and 2-min CSE times were similarly tested (n = 6 group) in a non-randomized order. Values expressed as mean ± SD.
Results: After 7 min of CPR, CerPPs were significantly higher in the 4-min vs 10-min CSE groups (53 ± 14.4 vs 38.5 ± 3.6 mmHg respectively, p = 0.03) whereas CorPP trended higher. The 4-min CSE group achieved 50% of baseline (50% BL) CerPP faster than the 10-min group (2.5 ± 1.2 vs 6 ± 3.1 minutes, p = 0.03). CerPP values in the 2-min and 4-min CSE groups were significantly higher than in the 24-sec group. With CSE, CerPPs and CorPPs increased over time in all groups.
Conclusions: By optimizing controlled sequential elevation timing, CerPP values achieved 50% of baseline within less than 2.5 minutes and >80% of baseline after 7 minutes of CPR. This novel CPR approach rapidly restored CerPPs to near normal values non-invasively and without vasopressors.
Keywords: Active compression–decompression CPR; Cardiac arrest; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation; Cerebral perfusion pressure; Coronary perfusion pressure; Head Up CPR; Head and thorax elevation; Impedance threshold device; Medical device; Patient positioning.
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