Since different varieties of crops have specific applications, it is therefore important to properly identify each cultivar, in order to avoid fake varieties being sold as genuine, i.e., fraud. Despite that properly trained human experts might accurately identify and classify crop varieties, computer vision systems are needed since conditions such as fatigue, reproducibility, and so on, can influence the expert's judgment and assessment. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume at the world-level and has several varieties. Three chickpea varieties with a rather similar visual appearance were studied here: Adel, Arman, and Azad chickpeas. The purpose of this paper is to present a computer vision system for the automatic classification of those chickpea varieties. First, segmentation was performed using an Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI) color space threshold. Next, color and textural (from the gray level co-occurrence matrix, GLCM) properties (features) were extracted from the chickpea sample images. Then, using the hybrid artificial neural network-cultural algorithm (ANN-CA), the sub-optimal combination of the five most effective properties (mean of the RGB color space components, mean of the HSI color space components, entropy of GLCM matrix at 90°, standard deviation of GLCM matrix at 0°, and mean third component in YCbCr color space) were selected as discriminant features. Finally, an ANN-PSO/ACO/HS majority voting (MV) ensemble methodology merging three different classifier outputs, namely the hybrid artificial neural network-particle swarm optimization (ANN-PSO), hybrid artificial neural network-ant colony optimization (ANN-ACO), and hybrid artificial neural network-harmonic search (ANN-HS), was used. Results showed that the ensemble ANN-PSO/ACO/HS-MV classifier approach reached an average classification accuracy of 99.10 ± 0.75% over the test set, after averaging 1000 random iterations.
Keywords: Cicer arietinum L.; chickpea; classification; computer vision; feature selection; hybrid ANN; image processing; legume; machine learning; majority voting; segmentation.