Wuchereria bancrofti macrophage migration inhibitory factor-2 (rWbaMIF-2) ameliorates experimental colitis

Parasite Immunol. 2020 Apr;42(4):e12698. doi: 10.1111/pim.12698. Epub 2020 Feb 6.


Immunomodulatory molecules produced by helminth parasites are receiving much attention recently as novel therapeutic agents for inflammation and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we show that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) homologue from the filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti (rWbaMIF-2), can suppress inflammation in a dextran sulphate sodium salt (DSS)-induced colitis model. The disease activity index (DAI) in DSS given mice showed loss of body weight and bloody diarrhoea. At autopsy, colon of these mice showed severe inflammation and reduced length. Administration of rWbaMIF-2 significantly reduced the DAI in DSS-induced colitis mice. rWbaMIF-2-treated mice had no blood in the stools, and their colon length was similar to the normal colon with minimal inflammation and histological changes. Pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-17A and NOS2) were downregulated in the colon tissue and peritoneal macrophages of rWbaMIF-2-treated mice. However, there were significant increases in IL-10-producing Treg and B1 cells in the colon and peritoneal cavity of rWbaMIF-2-treated mice. These findings suggested that rWbaMIF-2 treatment significantly ameliorated the clinical symptoms, inflammation and colon pathology in DSS given mice. This immunomodulatory effect of rWbaMIF-2 appeared to be by promoting the infiltration of Treg cells into the colon.

Keywords: Brugia malayi; Wuchereria bancrofti; B1 cells; DSS; T regulatory cells; colitis; macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Colitis / chemically induced
  • Colitis / drug therapy*
  • Colitis / immunology
  • Colitis / metabolism
  • Colon / immunology
  • Colon / metabolism
  • Dextran Sulfate
  • Female
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Interleukin-17 / metabolism
  • Intramolecular Oxidoreductases / therapeutic use*
  • Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • Wuchereria bancrofti*


  • Interleukin-17
  • Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Dextran Sulfate
  • Intramolecular Oxidoreductases
  • Mif protein, mouse