Treatment options for relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are limited, with no standard of care; prognosis is poor, with 4- to 6-month median survival. Avadomide (CC-122) is a cereblon-modulating agent with immunomodulatory and direct antitumor activities. This phase 1 dose-expansion study assessed safety and clinical activity of avadomide monotherapy in patients with de novo R/R DLBCL and transformed lymphoma. Additionally, a novel gene expression classifier, which identifies tumors with a high immune cell infiltration, was shown to enrich for response to avadomide in R/R DLBCL. Ninety-seven patients with R/R DLBCL, including 12 patients with transformed lymphoma, received 3 to 5 mg avadomide administered on continuous or intermittent schedules until unacceptable toxicity, disease progression, or withdrawal. Eighty-two patients (85%) experienced ≥1 grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), most commonly neutropenia (51%), infections (24%), anemia (12%), and febrile neutropenia (10%). Discontinuations because of AEs occurred in 10% of patients. Introduction of an intermittent 5/7-day schedule improved tolerability and reduced frequency and severity of neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and infections. Among 84 patients with de novo R/R DLBCL, overall response rate (ORR) was 29%, including 11% complete response (CR). Responses were cell-of-origin independent. Classifier-positive DLBCL patients (de novo) had an ORR of 44%, median progression-free survival (mPFS) of 6 months, and 16% CR vs an ORR of 19%, mPFS of 1.5 months, and 5% CR in classifier-negative patients (P = .0096). Avadomide is being evaluated in combination with other antilymphoma agents. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01421524.
© 2020 by The American Society of Hematology.