Evaluation of toceranib for treatment of apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma in dogs

J Vet Intern Med. 2020 Mar;34(2):873-881. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15706. Epub 2020 Jan 24.


Background: There is no widely accepted standard medical treatment for apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) in dogs. Targeted agents such as toceranib may be effective in treatment of AGASACA, but the number of clinical reports investigating its efficacy is limited.

Hypothesis/aim: To evaluate the efficacy of toceranib treatment of AGASACA in dogs, and to assess prognostic factors in the study population. Our hypothesis was that toceranib would provide a clinical benefit in the treatment of dogs with AGASACA.

Animals: Thirty-six client-owned dogs with either a cytologic or histologic diagnosis of AGASACA that were treated with toceranib alone or in combination with surgery, nonconcurrent chemotherapy or both.

Methods: Retrospective study.

Result: The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival time (OST) for the study population was 313 days and 827 days, respectively. A clinical benefit from toceranib treatment was observed in 69% of dogs, with 20.7% of dogs experiencing partial response and 48.3% of dogs experiencing stable disease. Dogs that responded to toceranib treatment had significantly prolonged PFS and OST. Hypercalcemia was a negative prognostic factor for clinical outcomes.

Conclusions: Toceranib is effective in the treatment of AGASACA in dogs. Prospective, controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of toceranib in comparison to other treatment protocols for dogs with AGASACA.

Keywords: AGASACA; OST; PFS; canine.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy
  • Adenocarcinoma / veterinary*
  • Anal Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Anal Gland Neoplasms / mortality
  • Anal Sacs*
  • Animals
  • Apocrine Glands*
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Dog Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Dog Diseases / mortality
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Indoles / administration & dosage
  • Indoles / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Pyrroles / administration & dosage
  • Pyrroles / therapeutic use*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Wisconsin


  • Indoles
  • Pyrroles
  • toceranib phosphate