Long-term culture of primary cells is characterized by functional and secretory changes, which ultimately result in replicative senescence. It is largely unclear how the metabolome of cells changes during replicative senescence and if such changes are consistent across different cell types. We have directly compared culture expansion of primary mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iMSCs) until they reached growth arrest. Both cell types acquired similar changes in morphology, in vitro differentiation potential, senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and DNA methylation. Furthermore, MSCs and iMSCs revealed overlapping gene expression changes, particularly in functional categories related to metabolic processes. We subsequently compared the metabolomes of MSCs and iMSCs and observed overlapping senescence-associated changes in both cell types, including downregulation of nicotinamide ribonucleotide and upregulation of orotic acid. Taken together, replicative senescence is associated with a highly reproducible senescence-associated metabolomics phenotype, which may be used to monitor the state of cellular aging.
Keywords: DNA methylation; induced pluripotent stem cells; mesenchymal stromal cells; metabolomics; replicative senescence; transcriptomics.
Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.