Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria as Multi Products Source for Different Biotechnological and Medical Applications

Recent Pat Biotechnol. 2020;14(3):203-228. doi: 10.2174/1872208314666200121144816.

Abstract

Background: Gracilaria has been shown to be an important source of marine bioactive natural biomaterials and compounds. Although there are no enough patents used Gracilaria worldwide, the current study tries to put the Gracilaria on the spot for further important patents in the future.

Objective: The current study investigates the pharmaceuticals and biochemical activity of Gracilaria because no previous studies have been carried out to examine the biochemical and pharmaceutical activates of Gracilaria from the Suez Canal of Egypt as an excellent source for bioactive compounds.

Methods: Different advanced experimental models and analytical techniques, such as cytotoxicity, total antioxidant capacity, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory profiling were applied. The phytochemical analysis of different constituents was also carried out.

Results: The mineral analysis revealed the presence of copper (188.3 ppm) and iron (10.07 ppm) in addition to a remarkable wealth of selenium and sulfur contents giving up to 36% of its dry mass. The elemental analysis showed high contents of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. The GCMS profiling showed varieties of different bioactive compounds, such as fatty acids, different types of carotenoids in addition to pigments, alkaloids, steroids. Many other compounds, such as carbohydrates and amino acids having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities, etc. were identified. The cytotoxicity activity of Gracilaria marine extract was very effective against cancerous cell lines and showed high ability as a potent antitumor due to their bioactive constituents. Specialized screening assays using two anticancer experimental models, i.e., PTK and SKH1 revealed 77.88% and 84.50% inhibition anticancer activity; respectively. The anti-inflammatory activities investigated using four different experimental models, i.e., COX1, COX2, IL6, and TNF resulted in 68%, 81.76%, 56.02% and 78.43% inhibition; respectively. Moreover, Gracilaria extracts showed potent anti-Alzheimer with all concentrations.

Conclusion: Gracilaria proved to be a multi-product source of marine natural products for different biotechnological applications. Our recommendation is to investigate the Gracilaria bioactive secondary metabolites in order to create and innovate in more patents from current important seaweeds (Gracilaria).

Keywords: Gracilaria genus; Suez Canal; applications; biological activities; biotechnological; medical applications; multi products source of marine bioactive natural compounds.

MeSH terms

  • Alkaloids / chemistry
  • Alkaloids / classification
  • Alkaloids / isolation & purification
  • Alkaloids / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / classification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / chemistry*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / classification
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / isolation & purification
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / chemistry*
  • Antioxidants / classification
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Aquatic Organisms
  • Biological Products / chemistry*
  • Biological Products / classification
  • Biological Products / isolation & purification
  • Biological Products / pharmacology
  • Carotenoids / chemistry
  • Carotenoids / classification
  • Carotenoids / isolation & purification
  • Carotenoids / pharmacology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Copper / chemistry
  • Copper / isolation & purification
  • Cytotoxins / chemistry*
  • Cytotoxins / classification
  • Cytotoxins / isolation & purification
  • Cytotoxins / pharmacology
  • Fatty Acids / chemistry
  • Fatty Acids / classification
  • Fatty Acids / isolation & purification
  • Fatty Acids / pharmacology
  • Gracilaria / chemistry*
  • Gracilaria / metabolism
  • High-Throughput Screening Assays
  • Humans
  • Iron / chemistry
  • Iron / isolation & purification
  • Nootropic Agents / chemistry
  • Nootropic Agents / classification
  • Nootropic Agents / isolation & purification
  • Nootropic Agents / pharmacology
  • Patents as Topic
  • Phytochemicals / chemistry*
  • Phytochemicals / classification
  • Phytochemicals / isolation & purification
  • Phytochemicals / pharmacology
  • Pigments, Biological / chemistry
  • Pigments, Biological / classification
  • Pigments, Biological / isolation & purification
  • Pigments, Biological / pharmacology
  • Selenium Compounds / chemistry
  • Selenium Compounds / classification
  • Selenium Compounds / isolation & purification
  • Selenium Compounds / pharmacology
  • Steroids / chemistry
  • Steroids / classification
  • Steroids / isolation & purification
  • Steroids / pharmacology
  • Sulfur Compounds / chemistry
  • Sulfur Compounds / classification
  • Sulfur Compounds / isolation & purification
  • Sulfur Compounds / pharmacology

Substances

  • Alkaloids
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Antioxidants
  • Biological Products
  • Cytotoxins
  • Fatty Acids
  • Nootropic Agents
  • Phytochemicals
  • Pigments, Biological
  • Selenium Compounds
  • Steroids
  • Sulfur Compounds
  • Carotenoids
  • Copper
  • Iron