Heart failure (HF) has been a known complication of HIV/AIDS for three decades. As the treatment of HIV has changed, so has the epidemiology and pathophysiology of HF in people with HIV (PWH). Initial manifestations of HF in uncontrolled HIV primarily included a rapidly evolving cardiomyopathy with pericardial involvement. With the widespread uptake of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HF in PWH has become a chronic disease reflective of the aging population and associated comorbidities, albeit with a contribution from HIV-associated chronic immune dysregulation and inflammation. Despite viral suppression, PWH remain at elevated risk for both HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction. In this review, we discuss the changing epidemiology and mechanisms of HF in PWH and how that may inform HF prevention in this vulnerable population.
Keywords: HIV; Heart failure; Immune dysfunction.
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