During a county-wide mumps outbreak in Nashville, Tennessee, 332 cases of mumps were identified at a public high school (attack rate, 18.8%). A pep rally 17 d before the peak of the outbreak at a single public high school may have provided an opportunity for point-source exposure. A case-control study demonstrated that vaccine efficacy was 75% (we used provider-verified records and excluded students with a history of mumps disease). Although school records were nonuniform, mumps immunization status was correct, compared with provider-verified records, in at least 85% of both cases and controls. Parental reports were much less reliable. The cost of the outbreak was estimated at $154/case. Receiving mumps vaccine at a vaccine clinic held after the outbreak had peaked was associated with a decrease in risk of mumps disease. Thus, these clinics may have a role in the control of such outbreaks.