Retinal Cell Protection in Ocular Excitotoxicity Diseases. Possible Alternatives Offered by Microparticulate Drug Delivery Systems and Future Prospects

Pharmaceutics. 2020 Jan 24;12(2):94. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12020094.


Excitotoxicity seems to play a critical role in ocular neurodegeneration. Excess-glutamate-mediated retinal ganglion cells death is the principal cause of cell loss. Uncontrolled glutamate in the synapsis has significant implications in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The exploitation of various approaches of controlled release systems enhances the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activity of drugs. In particular, microparticles are secure, can maintain therapeutic drug concentrations in the eye for prolonged periods, and make intimate contact by improving drug bioavailability. According to the promising results reported, possible new investigations will focus intense attention on microparticulate formulations and can be expected to open the field to new alternatives for doctors, as currently required by patients.

Keywords: controlled drug release; excitotoxicity; microparticles; neurodegeneration; retina.

Publication types

  • Review