The genome of Rhodothermus marinus DSM 4253 encodes six glycoside hydrolases (GH) classified under GH family 3 (GH3): RmBgl3A, RmBgl3B, RmBgl3C, RmXyl3A, RmXyl3B and RmNag3. The biochemical function, modelled 3D-structure, gene cluster and evolutionary relationships of each of these enzymes were studied. The six enzymes were clustered into three major evolutionary lineages of GH3: β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidases, β-1,4-glucosidases/β-xylosidases and macrolide β-glucosidases. The RmNag3 with additional β-lactamase domain clustered with the deepest rooted GH3-lineage of β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidases and was active on acetyl-chitooligosaccharides. RmBgl3B displayed β-1,4-glucosidase activity and was the only representative of the lineage clustered with macrolide β-glucosidases from Actinomycetes. The β-xylosidases, RmXyl3A and RmXyl3B, and the β-glucosidases RmBgl3A and RmBgl3C clustered within the major β-glucosidases/β-xylosidases evolutionary lineage. RmXyl3A and RmXyl3B showed β-xylosidase activity with different specificities for para-nitrophenyl (pNP)-linked substrates and xylooligosaccharides. RmBgl3A displayed β-1,4-glucosidase/β-xylosidase activity while RmBgl3C was active on pNP-β-Glc and β-1,3-1,4-linked glucosyl disaccharides. Putative polysaccharide utilization gene clusters were also investigated for both R. marinus DSM 4253 and DSM 4252T (homolog strain). The analysis showed that in the homolog strain DSM 4252T Rmar_1080 (RmXyl3A) and Rmar_1081 (RmXyl3B) are parts of a putative polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) for xylan utilization.