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, 10 (1), 1425

Associations Between Untraditional Risk Factors, Pneumonia/Lung Cancer, and Hospital Fatality Among Hypertensive Men in Guangzhou Downtown

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Associations Between Untraditional Risk Factors, Pneumonia/Lung Cancer, and Hospital Fatality Among Hypertensive Men in Guangzhou Downtown

Yuechun Shen et al. Sci Rep.

Abstract

Mortality of primary hypertension is high worldwide. Whether untraditional factors exist in modern life and affect the mortality is not well studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk factors for fatality rate of hypertensive men in downtown area. A cross-sectional study was performed on hypertensive men, who were hospitalized into our hospital and lived in eligible urban areas. The characteristics of the patients and factors for the fatality were analyzed and of the risks or the contributors on the status were investigated. 14354 patients were identified. Mean age was 68.9 ± 12.4 year old (y) and dead ones was 75.9 ± 9.5 y. The overall hospitalized fatality was 5.9%, which was increased with age: fatality with 0.7%, 2.2%, 2.9%, 7.1%, 11.1% and 16.6% was for age group ≦ 49 y, 50-59 y, 60-69 y, 70-79 y, 80-89 y and ≧ 90 y respectively. The increased fatality was significantly positively correlated with the incidence of pneumonia, P < 0.05, r = 0.99. Pneumonia was prone to involve in men with older age and severer organ damage by hypertension. Similar to traditional risks such as coronary heart disease and stroke, pneumonia and lung cancer were also significantly associated with the fatality. Odds ratio (95% CI) for pneumonia and lung cancer were 6.18 (4.35-8.78) and 1.55 (1.14-2.11). The study provides evidence that pneumonia and lung cancer are highly associated with fatality of hypertensive men in downtown area, indicating that in order to reduce the fatality of hypertension, these lung diseases should be prevented and treated intensively in modern life.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Data profile (A) and criteria for patients’ residence (B). (A) 14354 in-hospital hypertensive men are at baseline analyses after excluding ones who do not meet the criteria of the study. (B) A map of geographic districts in city Guangzhou and a list of population, area, and population density in the districts. The patients enrolled in current study are from three districts in circles, from where Yuexiu is our hospital located at. The map is generated by Microsoft (R) Paint, version 5.1 (2600, xpsp_sp3_afe.130704–0421: Service Pack 3).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Age distribution of men with hypertension and dead ones (A) and relationship between the age and complications/comorbidities (B,C). (A) The figure supports hypertension is an aged related disease. (B) Numbers of Comp (complications/comorbidities) increase with age. P < 0.000, r = 0.99. (C) Patients with Comp are significantly older than those without except for hemorrhagic stroke marked NS (not significant). *P < 0.05. CHD = coronary heat disease; -S = stroke.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Positive correlation between incidence of pneumonia and the fatality of hypertension. (A), The fatality of men with hypertension increases with age. (B) Significant positive coefficient correlation (SP-CC) is found between incidence of pneumonia and the fatality. (C) SP-CC is also found in pneumonia between the patients and dead ones. (D) SP-CC is not found in lung cancer between the patients and dead ones.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Pneumonia is susceptible in patients with higher stage of hypertension and older age. (A) Distribution of each stage of hypertension in the patients. (B) Distribution of pneumonia in each stage of hypertension. (C) The higher stage of hypertension the more pneumonia. (D) The higher stage of hypertension the more pneumonia and the older age.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Associations of risk factors with the fatality of hypertension. As age increases, the risk of the fatality increases. Similar to traditional risks such as coronary heart disease, pneumonia and lung cancer are also risks for the fatality of hypertension.

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