Objective: The physical activity loyalty (PAL) scheme was a cluster randomized controlled trial of a 6-month complex intervention targeting workplace physical activity. Financial incentives were incorporated in an evidence-based behavior change program, including self-regulation techniques. This article examines short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (≥ 6 months) mediation effects on physical activity.
Method: Participants included 853 adults (457 intervention, 396 control). Physical activity was objectively assessed using pedometers at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Hypothesized short-term mediators (e.g., self-efficacy, intentions) were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks. Hypothesized long-term mediators (e.g., habit, intrinsic motivation) were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Mediation models employed the structural equation modeling product-of-coefficients approach.
Results: Intervention participants experienced significant decreases in 6-month pedometer steps/day versus controls (b = -336, p = .02), which were partially mitigated by positive indirect effects through 6-month integrated regulation (ab = 94.7, 95% CI [18.7, 204.4]), intrinsic motivation (ab = 59.0, 95% CI [3.09, 154.5]), and habit (ab = 198.7, 95% CI [84.3, 369.9]). There were no between-groups differences in 12-month pedometer steps/day but positive indirect effects through 6-month integrated regulation (ab = 128.0, 95% CI [27.3, 313.2]), planning (ab = 115.0, 95% CI [3.71, 285.5]), and habit (ab = 153.3, 95% CI [39.3, 333.1]).
Conclusions: Most examined mediators were nonsignificant, and mediation analyses did not explain decreases in physical activity for interventions versus controls. Results show that, contrary to self-determination theory hypotheses, intrinsic motivation is not necessarily adversely impacted if financial incentives are embedded in a complex intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Predicting Outcomes From Engagement With Specific Components of an Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention With Financial Incentives: Process Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled TrialJM Murray et al. J Med Internet Res 21 (4), e11394. PMID 31002304. - Randomized Controlled TrialOur results provide evidence opposing one of the main hypotheses of self-determination theory by showing that financial rewards are not necessarily associated with decrea …
Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of a Loyalty Scheme for Physical Activity Behaviour Change Maintenance: Results From a Cluster Randomised Controlled TrialRF Hunter et al. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 15 (1), 127. PMID 30541563. - Randomized Controlled TrialOur mixed results pose challenges that are too infrequently exposed in public heath intervention trials. Although the intervention successfully altered several hypothesis …
Social Cognitive Theory Mediators of Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Program for Cancer Survivors and Carers: Findings From the ENRICH Randomized Controlled TrialFG Stacey et al. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 13, 49. PMID 27075417. - Randomized Controlled TrialSCT constructs had limited impact on objectively-assessed step counts in a multiple health behavior change intervention for cancer survivors and their carers. Behavioral …
A Loyalty Scheme to Encourage Physical Activity in Office Workers: A Cluster RCTRF Hunter et al. PMID 31479219. - ReviewOverall, assignment to the intervention group resulted in a small but significant decline in the mean pedometer-measured steps per day at 6 months relative to baseline, c …
Workplace Pedometer Interventions for Increasing Physical ActivityRL Freak-Poli et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4), CD009209. PMID 23633368. - ReviewThere was limited and low quality data providing insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical act …
- National Institute for Health Research; Public Health Research Programme
- Public Health Agency
- South Eastern Health and Social Care Trust
- Department for the Economy, Northern Ireland (DfE)
- National Institute for Health Research