Background: Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is a rare, mostly X-linked recessive genodermatosis, characterized by congenital defects of ectodermal derivative structures as the central nervous system (CNS) is primarily ectodermal in origin.
Purpose: To evaluate CNS variations and abnormalities in AED.
Material and methods: A retrospective analysis was made of the neurological and neuroimaging findings of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls; median age = 8 years; age range = 2-14 years) diagnosed with AED in our pediatric clinics during 2008-2016. The pattern of CNS variation and abnormalities were evaluated by comparing of these findings with an age- and gender-matched healthy control group with no family history.
Results: Of the 17 AED cases identified on the basis of neuroimaging findings, 6 (35.3%) were seen to be normal. Associated CNS variation and abnormalities including cavum septum pellucidum (35.3%), callosal dysgenesis (11.8%), prominent Virchow-Robin spaces (64.7%), cortical sulcal dilation (41.1%), mega cisterna magna (35.3%), focal cortical dysplasia (11.8%), and delayed myelination (58.8%) were observed in 11 (64.7%) children with AED.
Conclusion: AED suggests a spectrum of CNS variation and abnormalities, presenting with neurological and neuroimaging findings, demonstrated in the embryonic surface- and neuro-ectoderm derived structures. The results of this study suggest that CNS variation and abnormalities might be associated with AED.
Keywords: Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia; central nervous system; magnetic resonance neuroimaging; variation and abnormality.