Inappropriate stoma site, improper management of stoma, and stoma complications lead to diminished quality of life of ostomates. Healthcare professionals involved in stoma creation and/or care should have the fundamental and updated knowledge of the management of stomas and their complications. This review article consists of the following major sections: principles of perioperative patient management, early complications, and late complications. In the "principles of perioperative patient management" section, the current concepts and trends in preoperative education, stoma site marking, postoperative education, and patient educational resources are discussed. In the "early complications" section, we have focused on the etiology and current management of ischemia/necrosis, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, mucocutaneous separation, and retraction. In the "late complications" section, we have focused on the etiology and current management of parastomal hernia, stoma prolapse, parastomal varices, and pyoderma gangrenosum. Pre- and postoperative patient education facilitates the patient's independence in stoma care and resumption of normal activities. Healthcare providers should have basic skills and updated knowledge on the management of stomas and complications of stomas, to act as the first crisis manager for ostomates.
Keywords: Stoma complications; early complications; late complications; perioperative management; stoma care.
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