Introduction: Screen-time has become a regular occupation for young children at home and school, with little evidence of its impact on children's developmental skills. This study explored the association between children's screen-time, fine motor, in-hand manipulation (IHM), visual-motor integration (VMI), sensory processing (SP) and parent-reported play skills.
Method: The fine motor, IHM, VMI, SP and play skills of a sample of 25 Australian children without disabilities (M age = 6.2 years, SD = 1.03; 64% girls) were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition, Test of In-Hand Manipulation-Revised, Berry Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration Sixth Edition, Sensory Processing Measure-Home Form and Pretend Play Enjoyment Developmental Checklist (PPEDC). Parents completed a week-long log of their child's screen-time. Spearman's rho correlations and linear regressions with bootstrapping were used for data analysis.
Results: Statistically significant moderate level negative correlations were found between Total Screen-Time (TST) and VMI skills (r = -.67, p < .01); Interactive Screen-Time and IHM abilities (r = -.46, p < .05) and TST and bilateral coordination skills (r = -.42, p < .05). There were significant negative correlations between SP ability and both TST (r = -.53, p < .01) and Watching Screen-Time (r = -.66, p < .01). When the PPEDC Object Substitution variable was entered into a regression model as a co-variate of hand function, it appeared to lessen the impact of TST as an independent predictor variable of children's VMI and bilateral coordination skills (p < .23 and p < .61).
Conclusion: Playing with toys and using object substitution in play (e.g. a child uses an object for something else other than its intended use when playing with it) potentially appear to be a moderating factor of the impact of children's screen-time on their bilateral coordination and VMI skills. Clinicians can encourage children's active and dynamic involvement in games and play pursuits to counteract the potential impact of increased use of devices that involve screen-time.
Keywords: active play; in-hand manipulation; motor skills; screen-time; visual-motor integration.
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