Objective: To identify novel and confirm previously reported metabolites associated with SBP, DBP, and hypertension in a biracial sample of Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS) participants.
Methods: We employed untargeted, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy metabolomics profiling among 1249 BHS participants (427 African-Americans and 822 whites) with BP and covariable data collected during the 2013 to 2016 visit cycle. A total of 1202 metabolites were tested for associations with continuous and binary BP phenotypes using multiple linear and logistic regression models, respectively, in overall and race-stratified analyses.
Results: A total of 24 novel metabolites robustly associated with BP, achieving Bonferroni-corrected P less than 4.16 × 10 in the overall analysis and consistent effect sizes across race groups. The identified metabolites included three amino acid and nucleotide metabolites from histidine, pyrimidine, or tryptophan metabolism sub-pathways, seven cofactor and vitamin or xenobiotic metabolites from the ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, bacterial/fungal, chemical, and food component sub-pathways, 10 lipid metabolites from the eicosanoid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingolipid metabolism sub-pathways, and four still unnamed metabolites. Six previously described metabolites were robustly confirmed by our study (Bonferroni-corrected P < 4.95 × 10 and consistent effect directions across studies). Furthermore, previously reported metabolites for SBP, DBP, and hypertension demonstrated 5.92-fold, 4.77-fold, and 4.54-fold enrichment for nominally significant signals in the BHS (P = 3.08 × 10, 5.93 × 10, and 2.30 × 10, respectively).
Conclusion: In aggregate, our study provides new information about potential molecular mechanisms underlying BP regulation. We also demonstrate reproducibility of findings across studies despite differences in study populations and metabolite profiling methods.
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