Purpose: This review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular injections of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA).
Methods: This narrative review evaluates recent English language clinical data and published research articles between 2014 and 2019. Key word search strings of ((("bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell" OR "bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell" OR "bone marrow stromal cell")) AND ("osteoarthritis" OR "knee osteoarthritis")) AND ("human" OR "clinical"))) AND "intra-articular injection" were used to identify relevant articles using PMC, Cochrane Library, Web Of Science and Scopus databases.
Results: Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated successful, safe and encouraging results for articular cartilage repair and regeneration. This is concluded to be due to the multilineage differential potential, immunosuppressive and self-renewal capabilities of BM-MSCs, which have shown to augment pain and improve functional outcomes. Subsequently, clinical applications of intra-articular injections of BM-MSCs are steadily increasing, with most studies demonstrating a decrease in poor cartilage index, improvements in pain, function and Quality of Life (QoL); with moderate-to-high level evidence regarding safety for therapeutic administration. However, low confidence in clinical efficacy remains due to a plethora of heterogenous methodologies utilised, resulting in challenging study comparisons. A moderate number of cells (40 × 106) were identified as most likely to achieve optimal responses in individuals with grade ≥ 2 KOA. Likewise, significant improvements were reported when using lower (24 × 106) and higher (100 × 106) cell numbers, although adverse effects including persistent pain and swelling were a consequence.
Conclusion: Overall, the benefits of intra-articular injections of BM-MSCs were deemed to outweigh the adverse effects; thus, this treatment be considered as a future therapy strategy. To realise this, long-term large-scale randomised clinical trials are required to enable improved interpretations, to determine the validity of efficacy in future studies.
Level of evidence: IV.
Keywords: Allogenic; Autologous; Cell therapies; Clinical efficacy; Immunomodulation; Mesenchymal stem cells; Optimal dosage; Osteoarthritis.