Human coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. Currently, six human CoVs have been reported including human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), OC43 (HCoV-OC43), NL63 (HCoV-NL63), HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and MiddleEast respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV). They cause moderate to severe respiratory and intestinal infections in humans. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the research and development of small-molecule anti-human coronavirus therapies targeting different stages of the CoV life cycle.
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