Toe brachial index predicts major acute cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes independently of arterial stiffness

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Mar;161:108040. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108040. Epub 2020 Jan 29.


Objective: Our aim was to analyze the predictive value of toe brachial index (TBI) as a risk marker for future major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods: TBI was measured in 741 patients with T2D in 2005-2008. Conventional risk factors for vascular disease as well as non-invasive measurements such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries were estimated. MACE was defined as cardiovascular death or hospitalization for non fatal myocardial infarction or non fatal stroke. Patients were followed for incidence of MACE using the national Swedish Cause of Death Registry and the Inpatient Register.

Results: During the follow-up for a period of 9 years MACE occurred in 97 patients and 85 patients died. TBI tertile, 1 versus 3, was significantly related to MACE (HR 2.67, 95%CI 1.60-4.50; p < 0.001) and to all-cause mortality (HR 1.98, 95%CI 1.16-3.83; p = 0.01). TBI tertile 1 as compared to TBI tertile 3 predicted MACE, but not all-cause mortality, independently of age, sex, diabetes duration and treatment, antihypertensive treatment, previous cardiovascular diseases, office systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, LDL cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, current smoking PWV, IMT and carotid plaque presence (HR 3.39, 95%CI 1.53-7.51; p = 0.003 and HR 1.81, 95%CI 0.87-3.76; p = 0.1, respectively).

Conclusions: Low TBI predicts an increased risk for MACE independently of arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Trial registration: Clinical number NCT01049737. Registered January 14, 2010.

Keywords: Cardiovascular events; Toe brachial index; Toe pressure; Type 2 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Aged
  • Ankle Brachial Index / methods*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / mortality
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate
  • Vascular Stiffness / physiology*

Associated data