Myocardial Function Maturation in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants and Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Front Pediatr. 2020 Jan 17:7:556. doi: 10.3389/fped.2019.00556. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

Background: Myocardial function in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs) develops during early postnatal life, but different patterns of temporal evolution that might be related to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) are not completely understood. Methods: A prospective cohort study including VLBWIs admitted to our NICU from January 2015 to 2017 was conducted. Plasma N-terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels were measured, and echocardiograms were performed at 24 and 72 h of life and weekly thereafter until 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA). We measured the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) by M-mode; the lateral tricuspid E', A', and S' waves; and the myocardial performance index (MPI) by tissue doppler imaging (TDI). The subjects were divided into non-BPD and BPD groups. Results: We included 101 VLBWIs. The TAPSE and E', A', and S' waves increased while MPI-TDI decreased over time. Birth gestational age (GA) and postnatal PMA impacted these parameters, which evolved differently in those who developed BPD compared to those in the non-BPD group. The NTproBNP levels at 14 days of life and different echocardiographic parameters were associated with the development of BPD in different multivariate models. Conclusion: TAPSE and TDI values depend on GA and PMA and follow a different temporal evolution that is related to the later development of BPD. Combined biochemical and echocardiographic biomarkers can help identify which VLBWIs are at higher risk of developing BDP.

Keywords: N-terminal pro B type natriuretic peptide; biomarkers; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; myocardial function; preterm infants; targeted neonatal echocardiography; tissue doppler imaging; tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.