Few Layer Graphene Does Not Affect Cellular Homeostasis of Mouse Macrophages

Nanomaterials (Basel). 2020 Jan 28;10(2):228. doi: 10.3390/nano10020228.


: Graphene-related materials (GRMs) are widely used in various applications due to their unique properties. A growing number of reports describe the impact of different carbon nanomaterials, including graphene oxide (GO), reduced GO (rGO), and carbon nanotubes (CNT), on immune cells, but there is still a very limited number of studies on graphene. In this work, we investigated the biological responses of few layer graphene (FLG) on mouse macrophages (bone marrow derived macrophages, BMDMs), which are part of the first line of defense in innate immunity. In particular, our paper describes our findings of short-term FLG treatment in BMDMs with a focus on observing material internalization and changes in general cell morphology. Subsequent investigation of cytotoxicity parameters showed that increasing doses of FLG did not hamper the viability of cells and did not trigger inflammatory responses. Basal level induced autophagic activity sufficed to maintain the cellular homeostasis of FLG treated cells. Our results shed light on the impact of FLG on primary macrophages and show that FLG does not elicit immunological responses leading to cell death.

Keywords: autophagy; bone marrow derived macrophages; carbon nanomaterials; graphene; primary immune cells.