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. 2020 Jan 28;9(2):85.
doi: 10.3390/pathogens9020085.

Human Metapneumovirus: Etiological Agent of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections in Hospitalized and Deceased Patients With a Negative Diagnosis of Influenza

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Free PMC article

Human Metapneumovirus: Etiological Agent of Severe Acute Respiratory Infections in Hospitalized and Deceased Patients With a Negative Diagnosis of Influenza

Gisela Barrera-Badillo et al. Pathogens. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is one of the four major viral pathogens associated with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) and creates a substantial burden of disease, particularly in young children (<5 years) and older individuals (≥65 years). The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological behavior of HMPV in Mexico. This retrospective study was conducted over a nine-year period and used 7283 influenza-negative respiratory samples from hospitalized and deceased patients who presented Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI). The samples were processed with the help of qualitative multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous detection of 14 respiratory viruses (xTAG® RVP FAST v2). 40.8% of the samples were positive for respiratory viruses, mainly rhinovirus/enterovirus (47.6%), respiratory syncytial virus (15.9%), HMPV (11.1%) and parainfluenza virus (8.9%). Other respiratory viruses and co-infections accounted for 16.5%. HMPV infects all age groups, but the most affected group was infants between 29 days and 9 years of age (65.6%) and adults who are 40 years and older (25.7%). HMPV circulates every year from November to April, and the highest circulation was observed in late winter. The results of this study aim to raise awareness among clinicians about the high epidemiological impact of HMPV in young children and older individuals in order to reduce the economic burden in terms of health care costs.

Keywords: epidemiology; human metapneumovirus; respiratory viruses.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Distribution of respiratory viruses in influenza-negative samples from hospitalized and deceased patients detected by qualitative multiplex RT-PCR (xTAG® RVP FAST v2) from April 2009 to December 2018 in Mexico.
Figure 2
Figure 2
(a) Age group distribution of HMPV positive cases and % of positive cases; (b) Age group distribution of HMPV co-infections and % of positive cases.
Figure 3
Figure 3
The monthly/annual distribution of HMPV in SARI hospitalized and deceased patients between April 2009 and December of 2018 in Mexico.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Annual distribution of HMPV by zones: north, center, southeast and peninsula.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Annual distribution of HMPV by zones: north, center, southeast and peninsula and age group.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Distribution of comorbidities by age group and percentage of positive cases.

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