Objective: Insulin resistance-associated obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are commonly accompanied with metabolic lipid abnormalities and are characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-c levels (atherogenic index plasma, AIP). The primary molecular mechanism that is known to cause insulin resistance is chronic low-grade inflammation. Considering that omega-3 fatty acid reduces subclinical inflammation, we hypothesized that fish oil could affect insulin resistance and AIP. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effects of fish oil supplementation on the inflammatory, insulin resistance, and atherogenic factors in overweight/obese T2DM patients.
Research designs and methods: In this study, we recruited 32 overweight and/or obese patients diagnosed with T2DM for over one year and who exhibited hypertriglyceridemia. These patients received fish oil supplementation (4.0 g/day) for eight weeks. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were obtained. In addition, blood samples were collected before and after omega-3 supplementation for the evaluation of lipid profile, glycemia, insulin, and inflammation.
Results: As expected, patients showed reduction in the TNFα, IL-1β, and Il-6 levels after fish oil supplementation and showed improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR) without observed alterations in anthropometric and body composition. These observations were followed by reduction in the levels of triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, increase in HDL cholesterol levels, and a significant reduction in triglycerides/HDL-c ratio, and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio.
Conclusion: Fish oil supplementation is effective in reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, improving insulin resistance, and reducing atherogenic factors in overweight/obese and T2DM patients independent of weight loss.
Keywords: Fish oil supplementation; Inflammation; Insulin resistance; Triglycerides/HDL-c ratio; Type 2 diabetes.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Conflict of interest statement
Declaration of competing interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
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