Prostate Benign Diseases

Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2020 Feb;29(1):1-16. doi: 10.1097/RMR.0000000000000227.


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used in the detection, localization, and staging of prostate cancer. Because of its excellent soft tissue contrast and multiplane imaging, it can be also very useful in the evaluation of benign prostate diseases. Prostatic benign disorders have a high prevalence, vastly represented by benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis. On the contrary, benign prostatic neoplasms are extremely rare, represented by multilocular cystadenoma, leiomyomas, hemangioma, and granular cell tumor, although these uncommon tumors have been most encountered due to widespread use of MRI. Congenital prostatic anomalies are associated with defects in the development of the prostate embryology, including hypoplasia, ectopia, and vascular malformations, abnormalities rarely seen on cross-sectional imaging. Prostatic cysts are the most common development abnormalities and occasionally are related to clinical symptoms, mainly due to infection and hemorrhage. As with prostate cancer, multiparametric MRI is a reliable tool for the diagnosis and management of benign prostatic diseases as well, providing additional information such morphological changes of the prostate, more accurate prostatic measurements, and functional characteristics of nonmalignant prostatic lesions. In this review, we discuss MRI findings of these benign prostatic diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Male
  • Prostate / diagnostic imaging
  • Prostatic Diseases / diagnostic imaging*