Post-contrast 3D T1-weighted TSE MR sequences (SPACE, CUBE, VISTA/BRAINVIEW, isoFSE, 3D MVOX): Technical aspects and clinical applications

J Neuroradiol. 2020 Sep;47(5):358-368. doi: 10.1016/j.neurad.2020.01.085. Epub 2020 Feb 1.


Post-contrast three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging of the brain is widely used for a broad range of vascular, inflammatory or tumoral diseases. The variable flip angle 3D TSE sequence is now available from several manufacturers (CUBE, General Electric; SPACE, Siemens; VISTA/BRAINVIEW, Philips; isoFSE, Itachi; 3D MVOX, Canon). Compared to gradient-echo (GRE) techniques, 3D TSE offers the advantages of useful image contrasts and reduction of artifacts from static field inhomogeneity. However, the respective role of 3D TSE and GRE MR sequences remains to be elucidated, particularly in the setting of post-contrast imaging. The purpose of this review was (1) to describe the technical aspects of 3D TSE sequences, (2) to illustrate the main clinical applications of the post-contrast 3D T1-w TSE sequence through clinical cases, (3) to discuss the respective role of post-contrast 3D TSE and GRE imaging in the field of neuroimaging.

Keywords: Gadolinium; Gradient echo imaging; Post-contrast MR-imaging; Variable flip angle 3D TSE sequence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Contrast Media
  • Humans
  • Image Enhancement / methods
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Neuroimaging / methods*


  • Contrast Media