An accurate assessment of the safety or effectiveness of drugs in pharmaco-epidemiological studies requires defining an etiologically correct time-varying exposure model, which specifies how previous drug use affects the outcome of interest. To address this issue, we develop, and validate in simulations, a new approach for flexible modeling of the cumulative effects of time-varying exposures on repeated measures of a continuous response variable, such as a quantitative surrogate outcome, or a biomarker. Specifically, we extend the linear mixed effects modeling to estimate how past and recent drug exposure affects the way individual values of the outcome change throughout the follow-up. To account for the dosage, duration and timing of past exposures, we rely on a flexible weighted cumulative exposure methodology to model the cumulative effects of past drug use, as the weighted sum of past doses. Weights, modeled with unpenalized cubic regression B-splines, reflect the relative importance of doses taken at different times in the past. In simulations, we evaluate the performance of the model under different assumptions concerning (i) the shape of the weight function, (ii) the sample size, (iii) the number of the longitudinal observations and (iv) the intra-individual variance. Results demonstrate the accuracy of our estimates of the weight function and of the between- and within-patients variances, and good correlation between the observed and predicted longitudinal changes in the outcome. We then apply the proposed method to re-assess the association between time-varying glucocorticoid exposure and weight gain in people living with rheumatoid arthritis.
Keywords: Flexible modeling; longitudinal analysis; pharmacepidemiology; simulations; time-dependent exposures.