Sustainable Work Performance: The Roles of Workplace Violence and Occupational Stress

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Feb 1;17(3):912. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17030912.


The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationships between workplace violence, occupational stress, and sustainable work performance. Multiple dimensions of workplace violence (harassment, mobbing, ostracism, and stalking) were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was used, composed of 48 items with a 5-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree, to 5, strongly agree). Data were collected from 15 hospitals in the vicinity of Karachi, Lahore, and Islamabad, Pakistan. The target population of this study consisted of doctors, nurses, and paramedical staff. We distributed 500 questionnaires among the target population. In total, 345 usable questionnaires were returned, resulting in a response rate of 69%. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect effects. The results of this study highlight that in both direct and indirect relationships, workplace violence negatively influences sustainable work performance. The findings of this study are as follows: First, harassment reduces employee morale, which consistently lessens employees' work performance. Second, mobbing at the workplace reduces productivity, increases levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and irritability, and increases low work engagement, work absences, and work destruction. Third, ostracism at the workplace reduces motivation among workers and organizations, which reduces work efficiency. Work performance is undermined due to stalking at the workplace because it creates a bad image and brings toxicity among colleagues and peers. Fourth, occupational stress is considered a stigma among employees who are facing stress at the workplace. We can conclude that if employees are happy and healthy, they can be their most productive. So, organizations need to construct a culture where employees can be at their best and shine.

Keywords: occupational stress and sustainable work performance; workplace violence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Occupational Stress*
  • Pakistan
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Work Performance* / statistics & numerical data
  • Workplace Violence*
  • Workplace* / psychology
  • Workplace* / statistics & numerical data