Effective maintenance and stability of our genomes is essential for normal cell division, tissue homeostasis, and cellular and organismal fitness. The processes of chromosome replication and segregation require continual surveillance to insure fidelity. Accurate and efficient repair of DNA damage preserves genome integrity, which if lost can lead to multiple diseases, including cancer. Poly(ADP-ribose) a dynamic and reversible posttranslational modification and the enzymes that catalyze it (PARP1, PARP2, tankyrase 1, and tankyrase 2) function to maintain genome stability through diverse mechanisms. Here we review the role of these enzymes and the modification in genome repair, replication, and resolution in human cells.
Keywords: PARP; genome integrity; tankyrase.
© 2020 Azarm and Smith; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.