Background: The treatment of patients with recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) remains an unmet need.
Methods: Patients with R/M disease with a history of clinical or symptomatic disease progression within 6 months and a maximum of 1 previous line of chemotherapy or a multiple kinase inhibitor received oral lenvatinib at a dose of 24 mg/day. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate; secondary endpoints included quality of life (QOL) (according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 Items [EORTC QLQ-C30] and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core Module Head and Neck Module [EORTC QLQ-H&N35]), progression-free survival and overall survival, duration of response, and toxicities.
Results: Twenty-eight patients with R/M ACC were enrolled. Among 26 evaluable patients, 3 partial responses (11.5%) were reported. Target lesion reductions between 23% to 28% were observed in 4 of 20 patients with stable disease. Treatment-related adverse events were frequent (all grades, 96%; grade≥3 in 50% of cases according to version 4.03 of the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). The dose of lenvatinib was reduced in 24 patients, whereas in 21 patients the dose was reduced within the first 12 weeks and 4 patients maintained the full dose throughout treatment. The QOL deteriorated between baseline and 6 months with regard to Fatigue and Dry Mouth. There was no evidence of changes in Swallowing and Physical Functioning. At a median follow-up of 29 months, 2 patients remained on treatment, 10 patients were off protocol for disease progression and were alive with disease, and 14 patients had died of disease progression. The median overall survival, progression-free survival, and duration of response were 27 months, 9.1 months, and 3.1 months, respectively.
Conclusions: Lenvatinib appears to have modest activity in ACC. Toxicities are common but manageable and QOL was found to deteriorate in some domains.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02860936.
Keywords: adenoid cystic carcinoma; lenvatinib; quality of life; toxicity.
© 2020 American Cancer Society.