Engineering of amyloid structures is one of the new perspective areas of protein engineering. Studying the process of amyloid formation can help find ways to manage it in the interests of medicine and biotechnology. One of the promising candidates for the structural basis of artificial functional amyloid fibrils is albebetin (ABB), an artificial protein engineered under the leadership of O.B. Ptitsyn. Various aspects of the amyloid formation of this protein and some methods for controlling this process are investigated in this paper. Four stages of amyloid fibrils formation by this protein from the first non-fibrillar aggregates to mature fibrils and large micron-sized complexes have been described in detail. Dependence of albebetin amyloids formation on external conditions and some mutations also have been described. The introduction of similar point mutations in the two structurally identical α-β-β motifs of ABB lead to different amiloidogenesis kinetics. The inhibitory effect of a disulfide bond and high pH on amyloid fibrils formation, that can be used to control this process, was shown. The results of this work are a good basis for the further design and use of ABB-based amyloid constructs.
Keywords: albebetin; amyloid fibrils; amyloidogenesis; cross-beta structure; de novo proteins.