The scaffolding function of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) regulates prosurvival signaling and inflammatory gene expression, while its kinase activity mediates both apoptosis and necroptosis; the latter involving RIPK3 kinase activity. The mutual transition between the scaffold and kinase functions of RIPK1 is regulated by (de)ubiquitylation and (de)phosphorylation. RIPK1-mediated cell death leads to disruption of epithelial barriers and/or release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, and chemokines, propagating inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Many drug development programs have pursued targeting RIPK1, and to a lesser extent RIPK3 kinase activity. In this review, we classify existing and novel small-molecule drugs based on their pharmacodynamic (PD) type I, II, and III binding mode. Finally, we discuss their applicability and therapeutic potential in inflammatory and degenerative experimental disease models.
Keywords: RIPK1 inhibitors; cell death; drug targeting; inflammation.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.